Borneol is a bicyclic monoterpene, meaning its molecular structure is made up of two rings fused together. But what’s more important are the practical, real-life implications which borneol’s chemical characteristics translate into, since borneol actually has a wide range of powerful medicinal properties.
Like all terpenes, borneol’s aroma is an evolutionary defense mechanism, meant to protect the cannabis plant from predators and pests. Its scent is usually described as earthy, along the lines of camphor, balsam, or even menthol.
Pain and inflammation
Borneol has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years as an ingredient in topical preparations. But contemporary research keeps discovering new medical applications for borneol in modern medicine. The terpene has demonstrated an ability to relieve pain and inflammation in mice without causing sedation.1Furthermore, there have been speculations of borneol being used as a substitute for lidocaine, a localanesthetic.2Borneol has also demonstrated a potential for reducing the growth of mice fibroblasts, a type of cellwhich is also present in humans.3
The molecular process of programmed cell death is called apoptosis, in which cells commit suicide when they have been damaged or stressed beyond repair. An extension, or upgrade, of this process is called extrinsic apoptosis, when one type of cell influences another to kill itself. This is precisely what borneol has been found to do to cancer in human cancer cell lines.4
As you can see, borneol, like other cannabis terpenes, is far more than a “fragrant” cannabis compound. Studies have touched on its diverse medical properties, but we can only wonder of its exact power when participating in the synergy that is the “entourage effect.”
What Other Plants Contain Borneol?
With its natural fresh, woody, herbal, and even minty aroma, it shouldn’t come as a surprise that borneol is found in a range of different plants. Interestingly, many of the plants high in borneol have been sought after for their medicinal properties since ancient times. Modern research is only now validating what traditional medicine has known for centuries. Plants that contain high levels of borneol include:
How Is Borneol Used?
Plants high in borneol have been used in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. Borneol is used in everything from insect repellents to topical pain relievers. Borneol is also used internally for aiding in digestion and treatment of colds and coughs. Additionally, borneol is known for its stress relieving properties.
Which Cultivars Are High In Borneol?
Unlike many other terpenes, borneol isn’t typically advertised by cannabis cultivators or dispensaries. However, it is actually fairly common in certain cannabis strains. In fact, Haze and OG Kush strains typically have higher concentrations of borneol. These cultivars are known for their high levels of borneol:
– OG Kush
– Purple Haze
– Golden Haze
– Sour Diesel
– Girl Scout Cookies
– Silver Haze
– Coconut Goji Berry
- Barreto, et al, Improvement of wound tissue repair by chitosan films containing – borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene alcohol, in rats, Wound J, 2016, 13(5):799-808.
- Park et al, Inhibition of acetylcholine-mediated effects by borneol, Biochemical Pharmacology, 2003, 65(1): 83-90.
- Almeida et al, Borneol, a Bicyclic Monoterpene Alcohol, Reduces Nociceptive Behavior and Inflammatory Response in Mice, Scientific World Journal, 2013 Article808460.
- Su et al, Natural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage, PLoS One, 2013, 8(5): e63502.